Olive diseases and disorders in Australia
Abstract: The main aim of our research is to contribute to the knowledge on fungal diseases ofolives in Australia. Our study has resulted in several new records of fruit rots and of fungi onleaves, trunk and root diseases. This research has also resulted in new evidence of flowerinfection by anthracnose pathogen leading to fruit rot. Several fungi, some of pathogenicimportance, were observed on olives from different olive growth regions of Australia during asix-year period from 2002-2008.The major diseases of olive in Australia are anthracnoseColletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, cercosporiose Pseudocercospora cladosporiodesand peacock spot Fusicladium oleagineum. Minor diseases of olives are Phytophthora,Rhizoctonia, Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina, and Neofusicoccum luteum.Cercosporiose has been considered as a minor disease of olives until now, although fruit isoccasionally infected. Fruit damage is equally important as leaf infection. Infection of flowersleading to fruit rot is of economic importance as anthracnose results in significant losses in yieldand reduced oil quality.Olives are susceptible to be damage by heat and sun and other weather conditions, water-loggingor a lack of nutrients, and affect the functioning of the plant system and other environmentalconditions causes disorders.