Phytochemicals and semio-chemical use in Integrated Protection of stored products programs
Abstract: During storage, foods are currently destroyed by insects and other pests. These pests generally carried in their body fungus that can produce mycotoxins which cause risks to humans and animals; thus, the interaction between pest infestation and fungus contamination in stored food has been established. Generally damages caused by pest and fungi are reduced through chemical control, but there is a strong debate about the safety aspects of chemical preservatives since they are considered responsible for many carcinogenic and teratogenic attributes as well as residual toxicity. With the growing interest of the use of either essential oils or plants extracts as alternatives to synthetic chemicals for stored product protection, screening of plant extracts, essential oils and their derived components for insecticidal and anti-fungal properties has become of increasing importance. As the matter of fact, several articles in the literature published plethora of compounds from plant origin exhibiting both insecticidal and fungicidal activities. There is therefore a need of knowledge on phytochemicals and plants that could be used as insecticides and fungicides. Here, we review chemicals of plant origin and species with insecticidal and fungicidal activities. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using scientific databases, chemical databases, botanical databases, and books to identify published papers related to insecticidal and fungicidal chemical compounds stemmed from plant species and it was established that 3 main chemical classes were most cited for these activities: alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids. This review presents plant species and some of their chemical constituents of importance exhibiting both insecticidal and fungicidal activities and that could be used as alternative for integrated protection of stored products.