Abstract: The results of a questionnaire aimed at updating the knowledge on the economicimportance of the citrus pests and diseases in the main citrus producing countries of theMediterranean basin in 2017 are analyzed and discussed, comparing with a similarquestionnaire carried out in 2010. California red scale Aonidiella aurantii, medfly Ceratitiscapitata (except in lemon) and aphids (Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii) are, as sevenyears ago, the major pests of oranges, clementines and lemons. In 2017, Aphis gossypiiincreases its importance compared to 2010. Phyllocnistis citrella is less important than sevenyears ago in adult trees, but considered a major pest in citrus nurseries. Other important pestsare, in all citrus species, the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri and the spider mitesTetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, and in lemon, the citrus flower moth Pray citri.Finally, the fungi Phytophtora spp. and Plenodomus tracheiphilus (in lemons) are consideredthe most important diseases. Recently introduced or emergent pests include the following:Trioza erytreae, Eutetranychus orientalis and E. banksi in Portugal and Spain; Thripshawaiensis in Turkey; Chaetanaphothrips orchidii in Spain; Theba pisana and Empoascadecipiens in Morocco; Aleurocanthus spiniferus in Italy; Paraleyrodes minei in Italy andSpain; Penthimiola bella in Portugal; and Chrysomphalus pinnulifer in Tunisia.