Abstract: Control measures against the false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta,have traditionally ignored the soil-borne pupal stage. Recent trials with entomopathogenicnematodes (EPNs) and entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs) have targeted this life-stage. Applicationof Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to a citrus orchard floor, reduced T. leucotreta infestation offruit by up to 81%. Conservation of H. zealandica through non-usage of a nematicide alsoresulted in dramatically lower fruit infestation. Dose-response and exposure time-responsebioassays identified the three most promising fungal isolates against pupating T. leucotreta.Orchard trials showed persistence of these fungi in orchard soil for at least six months.