The hail-nets against codling moth and their influence on the behavior of moth species harmful to the pear tree in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)
Abstract: The behavior of some species of Lepidoptera, frequently present and widespread on pear, is investigated. The main dangerous pests are: Cydia pomonella (L.), Argyrotaenia ljungiana (Thunberg), Pandemis cerasana (Hübner) and sometime Grapholita molesta (Busck). In previous experiments the ability of hail nets to reduce the C. pomonella and other species of Lepidoptera damages was demonstrated.The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to understand the main reasons that led to those results, in particular to investigate the variations in the behavior of C. pomonella under the hail-net (i.e. interference on mating). Variation of temperature and radiation under the net, that could have a significant effect on the behavior of pests, were investigated.