M. D. Ochando, S. Rodriguez, S. Hernández & C. Callejas…………………………………11-19Abstract: Although the need to develop and implement more effective strategies of combatingpests and pathogens has always been dire, the urgency of this challenge has increased sharply inrecent years due in part to the spread and bioinvasions of many species. There is consensus thatan increase in the scientific knowledge of insect pests and their natural enemies will lead to ahigher and more effective biological control. In this sense, molecular methodologies can provideus with new characters of study in fields such as taxonomy, identification of biotypes, structureand dynamics of populations of pests, etc.In the present work the ISSR (Inter-Simple-Sequence-Repeat) technique was applied for the firsttime to the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in order to test the suitability of this molecularmethodology for population studies on this species, an economically important pest in theMediterranean region. The ISSR technique amplify inter-simple sequence repeats i.e. intermicrosatellites,trough the use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).