Abstract: Cydia pomonella is the most important pest in apples, pears, quinces and walnutsorchards all over the world. Its control with chemical insecticides comes up against manyresistances developed by this insect. The biological control with a specific Granulovirus, theCpGV, is one of the key tools for farmers, especially in organic production. After more than 20years of generalized use of a single virus isolate, insect populations resistant to the virus havebeen detected in Germany first, then in France, opening the question on the sustainability of suchcontrol approach. Codling moth resistant populations weaken the whole production field.By selection on a resistant insect colony, virus variants able to kill resistant insects wereobtained. The most promising is being patented. Field trials conducted in France and Germany in2010 with one of these variants, the CpGV-R5, have shown a very interesting control level inresistant populations, compatible with agricultural practices. The registration of CpGV-R5variant is on-going in Europe and its equivalence with the CpGV-M isolate has been recognizedby the French authorities for its inscription at the Annex I. Its registration in France would beobtained in 2011 under “Carpovirusine Evo2” trademark.This example has contributed to the modification of the European regulations framework onthe registration of biological control agents, allowing the introduction of the co-evolution and ofbiodiversity concepts for Baculovirus.However, this approach requires modify the way in which the CpGV is used in orchards. Astrategy was drawn by Arysta LifeScience/NPP for the use of CpGV-R5 variant in order tosustain the use of CpGV by farmers.