Utilization of Mating Disruption and Codling Moth Granulosis virus (CMGV) in Conventional Commercial Apple Orchards in Pennsylvania, USA
Abstract: During the last five years, codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., reestablished itself as the dominant direct fruit pest in most apple orchards in Pennsylvania, USA. Together with the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and the eastern USA leafroller complex, the codling moth has become the driving force for insecticide treatments applied in orchards. When the codling moth developed resistance to older insecticides, it forced growers to seek new methods to control this pest and adopt newer methods such as mating disruption or bio-rational compounds to provide adequate control. Although both tactics have been used for a long time in organic orchards, no experience existed in conventional orchards in Pennsylvania. Therefore, a multi-year project was initiated to evaluate such methods in conventional orchards where both methods were incorporated into standard pest control practices. During three consecutive seasons, various rates and combinations of the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) and mating disruption were utilized in orchards and provided excellent control of internal fruit feeders, even when CpGV was applied as alternate row middle applications. CpGV laboratory and field bioassays conducted on apples and nectarines revealed a toxicity of the codling moth granulosis virus against neonates of Oriental fruit moth.