Viticulture, landscape and functional biodiversity: agronomy, ecology,sociology and economy!
Abstract: The European Life+ program BIODIVINE focuses on the conservation of generalbiodiversity in viticulture landscapes across Europe. Many such landscapes have a long historyand strong dominance of viticulture that has created remarkable landscapes. The conservation ofbiodiversity in such landscapes, without impacting the landscape aesthetics and withoutconstraints for farmers (costs, loss of surface) is challenging. Efficient communication is neededto convince farmers to adapt new practices. Ecosystem services such as conservation biologicalcontrol can be used to convince farmers but supporting data are not always convincing. Betterresults can be achieved by focusing primarily on agronomic and economic reasons for landscapemanagement.The use of ground cover inside and around plots, hedgerow planting, sowing fallow plotswith fodder crops all have clear agronomic amenities that should stay the primary objective forthe farmer.Training farmers and personnel, and involving local stakeholders, help to increaseawareness. Finally efficient external communication on landscape actions can be included inmarketing strategies, but care should be taken to avoid greenwashing.