In areas with sufficient precipitation (e.g. >500 mm during the growing season) and suitable soil type, the maintenance of a permanent or temporary green cover during the growth season is highly recommended to avoid erosion and soil compaction, promote water infiltration and increase biodiversity.

When the control of weeds is necessary, herbicides should be replaced by mechanical tillage or by using a mulch soil cover with organic materials or by partial or total green cover. Mulch type and sanitary quality should be carefully selected since it could favour certain pests (voles). The use of selective broad-leaf weed herbicides in the alleyways should be avoided.

The use of Fabaceae as cover crops to improve soil structure, weed control and soil fertility is recommended.

Alleyways should be of grass and/or herbs and of adequate width to easily accommodate the tractor wheels.

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