In areas with sufficient precipitation (e.g. >500 mm during the growth season) and suitable soil type the maintenance of a permanent or temporary green cover during the growth season is highly recommended to avoid soil compaction, promote water infiltration and increase biodiversity.

It is recommended that in case of necessary control of weeds, herbicides should be replaced by mechanical cultivation, or by using a mulch soil cover with organic materials or by partial or total green cover. Mulch type and sanitary quality should be carefully selected since it could favour certain pest (voles).

It is recommended that use of selective broad-leaf weed herbicides in the alleyways is avoided.

The use of Leguminosae as cover crops to improve soil structure, weed control and soil fertility is recommended.

Alleyways should be of grass and/or herbs and of adequate width to easily accommodate the tractor wheels.

A green cover during winter is strongly advised at least in the alleyways, with an exception for arid areas.

Tillage should be avoided in fields with a high slope.

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