Solarisation (especially for southern Europe) or cover crops against nematodes, VerticilliumPhytophthora and others is recommended.

However, it is important to consider that, in the long term, the disinfection of soil is not a sustainable approach for soil-borne disease management. There should be a preference to improve soil biodiversity instead of creating a sterile soil. The latter leaves soil vulnerable to pathogens and is not sustainable. Consideration should be given to the incorporation of fresh biofumigant plant material. Sowing or pre-planting biofumigant species is recommended.

ASD (Anaerobic soil disinfestation) is recommended for protected crops.

Pre-planting, disinfection with steam is an option that can be considered particularly for protected crops, but not encouraged because of the amount of energy required.

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