The prevention and/or suppression of key pests and diseases should be supported among other options especially by:

  • Encouraging new flush in spring and reduce it in summer and autumn, through irrigation, pruning and fertilization, to limit damage to young shoots by citrus leafminer and other pestspest depending on these new shoots.
  • Pruning can reduce populations of scales insects such as Lepidosaphes beckii, Ceroplastes sinensisAonidiella aurantii, Saissetia oleae and coffeae Coccus hesperidum, by direct elimination or by indirect microclimate changes(light, aeration, humidity).
  • Remove the inner tree vigorous new shoots: they are reservoir of pests such as aphids, whiteflies, etc.
  • Remove citrus trees with symptoms caused by severe isolates of the Citrus Tristeza virus, after confirmation of its presence by molecular tests, to limit pathogen spread
  • Using of different kind of traps with pheromone or food attract should be encourage to monitoring pest populations and as method of decision making to the farmer as tool for lower pesticide input on the orchards.
  • For Medfly control, eliminate fruits fallen on the ground or not harvested and avoid susceptible species of fruit trees as apricot, fig, kaki or prickly pear in or near citrus orchards.
  • Require molecular tests (PCR), performed by competent national organizations, to confirm the presence of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter spp., for a coordinate action with national institutions for bacterium spread control.
  • Alert competent authorities in case citrus show symptoms of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Molecular tests to confirm the presence of the virus are performed by competent national organizations. Growers must be alert to symptoms caused by CTV in case have citrus scions grafted on Citrus aurantium rootstocks and the efficient vector Toxoptera citricida is present in the region. 
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