Abstract: Orchards encounter strong protection problems, because of both the demand of high standards of visual quality that requires an intensive use of pesticides, and the current adaptation of pests and diseases to those pesticides. Facing these problems while preserving production and quality and being attentive to the preservation of the environment, supposes designing cropping systems for integrated fruit production. In this contribution, we expose the two ways of this design: expert-based and model-based. Then, we point out the areas of research that should be strengthened to design IFP cropping systems on sound bases. The first is the analysis of current protection practices. The second is the study of crop-pest-enemies interactions under the influence of crop and pest management. The third is landscape studies. We conclude on the multi-disciplinary nature of research for IFP purposes.