Parasitoids and predators of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in east Mediterranean region of Turkey
Abstract: The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is considered as an important pest of citrus, damaging mainly nursery plants. In Turkey, it was first recorded in 1994 and rapidly spread to all citrus growing areas of the country. Due to its wide expansion and damage, efforts were initiated to control this pest with biological control agents and species composition was investigated. This study illustrates our continuous studies on the parasitoids and predators of the pest in east Mediterranean region of Turkey. Eleven species of parasitoids were identified: Cirrospilus brevis Zhu, LaSalle & Huang, C. pictus (Nees), C. variegatus (Masi), C. vittatus Walker, C. ingenuus Gahan, Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan), Semielacher petiolata (Girault), Pnigalio incompletus (Bouček), P. mediterraneus Fer.-Del., Diglyphus isaea (Walker), Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and unidentified individuals belonging to 7 genera [(Neochrysocharis sp., Chrysocharis sp., Chrysonotomyia sp., Baryscapus sp., Pnigalio sp., Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)]. Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Oenopia (Synharmonia) conglobata (L.), Scymnus rubromaculatus (Goeze), Scymnus spp., (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), ants and spiders were determined as predators of the pest.