Pesticide treadmill in greenhouses of Kazakhstan: Why IPM is not adopted?
Abstract: This paper reveals the major reasons why Integrated Pest Management, including biological pest control, is not adopted and why pesticides are indiscriminately used in greenhouse farms in Kazakhstan. In 2012-2013 we carried out monitoring of pest occurrence in 49 greenhouse farms, with total area of more than 200 ha, located in various regions of Kazakhstan. Data related to the pest and pesticide problems were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant observation method, literature and press coverage review with cross-checking the data from these sources. It appears that in greenhouses problems related to arthropod pests are topical, causing significant yield losses. It was observed that pesticides are used injudiciously, leading to many consequent problems. This paper concludes that IPM-based pest control needs to be incorporated into everyday farming routines through explicitly knowledge-based plans for action.