Use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. green cover, pruning, removal of infected prunings, alternate mowing); pruning not only removes dead tissues but also allows proper ventilation and more effective spray coverage.
Use of optimum fertilisation (especially low nitrogen input) and irrigation practices.
Balanced nutrition and irrigation by using reasonable amounts of N and water for a moderate tree vegetation to prevent a humid environment that favours pathogens and scales.
Remove mummified fruits after harvesting and during winter pruning to prevent Monilia infections.
The risk of sharka and ESFY disease must be minimised by timely removal of infection sources from orchards and their surroundings (see Section 3).
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Medfly)
- In new plantations an adequate spatial separation of cultivars with successive ripening times can reduce infestation risks.
Drosophila suzukii (Spotted-wing drosophila)
- Remove all the fruits after harvest.
Comstockaspis (= Quadraspidiotus) perniciosa (S. José Scale)
Pseudaulacaspis (= Diaspis) pentagona (White Peach Scale)
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)
- Parasitoids of scale insects must be preserved and encouraged. The level of parasitisation should be assessed.