Seed treatment against insects and soil born fungi if relevant in the region/on the site.

Animal pests

Only “green” pesticides from the IOBC-WPRS Pesticide Side Effect Database.

Multiple years and spatial approaches to manage Diabroticapopulations.


Minimize arthropod pest damage to reduce mycotoxin risk.

Apply only fungicides based on a risk evaluation – high risk following minimal tillage and previous crop has been maize.


Prefer post emergence herbicides.

Apply time thresholds, if working knowledge/support is regionally available.

Use mechanical weed control as a general strategy, including prior to sowing.

Band spraying is recommended (combine chemical control in the row and mechanical between and in the rows).

Toxic weeds (e.g. AmbrosiaDatura species) should be monitored and long term managed.

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