Where important natural enemies are absent from olive-groves where the pest situation requires regular control measures (e.g. parasitoids of scale insects), key natural enemies (one of them usually the predator Chrysoperla carnea, the second one representing important insect parasitoids (especially against scales or the olive fly) or another predator like Anthocoris spp.) should be introduced, if available and effective.

Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)

  • Localised bait sprayings based on monitoring systems and DSS are strongly advised for olive fly control.


  • Verticillium wilt can be a serious disease in irrigated plantings and in olive crops intercropped with cotton, potato or other susceptible crops. It is essential to avoid planting on infected soil and use pathogen-free propagation material or use resistant/tolerant cultivars. Soil solarisation can contribute to the control of the disease.

Palpita (Margaronia) unionalis

  • May be damaging in nurseries and young trees and can be controlled by the use Bacillus thuringiensis

Zeuzera pyrina

  • Causes mining of branches causing destruction of part or entire canopies. Monitoring with traps for timely control or mating disruption can control this pest. Also direct application of pesticides in mines can be effective when possible. 

Otiorhynchus spp.

  • May cause strong damages to young leaves and shoots especially on young plants; synthetic fiber strips on the trunk can prevent adult damages to the canopy.

Fusicladium oleagineum

  • Can defoliate canopies in humid and rainy areas; copper treatment in spring and autumn can control this disease. 

Rhynchites cribripennis

  • Cause feeding holes in young fruits that cause fruit drop. When high densities occur at the end of the flowering period then sprayings can be applied.
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