Control method to be used if available and effective:
- Bacillus thuringiensis must be used for control of leaf roller and noctuid caterpillars where effective.
- Phytoseiid predatory mites must be preserved and utilised in integrated mite management. This is feasible by avoiding the use of non-selective pesticides (especially pyrethroids) and limit exposure of non-target organisms.
To prevent resistance, in case more than one spray per season is applied, rotation of plant protection products with different mode of action should be adopted
There are specific restrictions concerning the number of fungicide applications (refer to 9.3.1). Rotation of fungicides is encouraged to prevent resistance development.
Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta (Oriental Fruit Moth) and Anarsia lineatella (Peach Twig Borer),
Adoxophyes orana (Leaf roller)
On peaches, nectarines and apricot mating disruption must be used as the basic control method wherever possible. Circumstances where mating disruption is not possible must be specified in regional/national guidelines. Where an additional or alternative control measure is required, priority should be given to use of selective compounds.
In regions where infestation is low, and especially in young orchards, removal of infested shoots by pruning in summer should be the first option.
Regional / national guidelines must specify threshold trap catches above which insecticide application is permitted.
On plums, Cydia funebrana
Mating disruption or more selective insecticides such as insect growth regulators or Bacillus thuringiensis are preferred, but in regions where damage occurs close to harvest use of broader spectrum short persistence insecticides is permitted
Drosophila suzukii (Spotted-wing drosophila) wherever approved, mass trapping is advised. Selective insecticides must be used where necessary. At the time of the completion of the present guideline, D. suzukii is a new pest in Europe and integrated control strategies are still not well defined. Due to this reasons a specific exception is admitted for non-selective insecticide use (see 9.3).
Comstockaspis (=Quadraspidiotus) perniciosa (S. José Scale)Pseudaulacaspis (=Diaspis) pentagona (White Peach Scale), Pseudococcus comstocki (=Comstock mealybug)
Parasitoids of scale insects must be preserved and encouraged. The level of parasitisation should be assessed. Scale insects should be controlled where necessary by application of mineral oil or poly-sulphurs in the dormant period. As last resort, these measures may be supplemented with application of selective insecticides in summer where necessary.
Where applicable, mechanical removal is advisable as an additional measure.
Taeniothrips meridionalis (Flower thrips) Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips major (Summer thrips)
These insects injure mostly nectarines. Damages can be serious on flowers but mainly on young fruits. Attacks close to harvest are difficult to predict; attention must be given to harvest interval.
Based on the poor efficacy of the monitoring tools available, the history of the orchard can be an acceptable reason for the application of control measures; for flower thrips is preferable a post blossom spray (for an alternative pre blossom spray only products known to be selective to honey bees are accepted).
For a single pre harvest treatment attention must be given to harvest interval.
Scolytus rugulosus, S. amygdali, Xyleborus dispar (on plum)
Alcohol-baited mass-trapping can be used to control it.
Myzus persicae (Green Peach Aphid) and Myzus cerasi (Black cherry aphid)
For stone fruit crops, where aphids readily develop resistance to insecticides, special care must be taken to preserve the natural enemies of aphids. Selective aphicides must be used if their efficacy is still demonstrated.