Based on weather recordings, especially during spring, an early risk assessment is made in relation to regional damage records and orchards case history. Wherever possible, use forecasting models.


Degree-days and phenology models for the need of reinforcement in key phenology times or the timing of other treatments; combined with other methods suitable for important pests (e.g. visual assessment, pheromone traps, traps baited with food based attractants, beating, coloured sticky traps.

Visual assessment (e.g. aphid and mite in spring and summer; overwintering pests on branches, egg and mobile form counting of tetranychids).


Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta (Oriental Fruit Moth), 
Anarsia lineatella (Peach Twig Borer), 
Leafrollers (e.g. Adoxophyes orana)

Regular monitoring by pheromone traps when mating disruption is not applied or traps with food attractants Combo traps when available (pheromone + attractant) in mating disruption system, sampling of damaged shoots and fruits, especially on early season, to determine the infestation level.

Captures on pheromone or food attractant traps can be used in a combined manner with degree-days and phenology models if they are available and officially validated. 

On plums, Cydia funebrana

Must be monitored using pheromone traps and control measures only applied where necessary. 


Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Medfly)

Monitoring by traps baited with food based attractants starting early in the year (at the end of winter) or, if possible, all year round.

Sampling of fruit to determine the infestation level.

Rhagoletis cerasi (Cherry Fruit Fly), R. cingulata

On cherry and sour cherry, must be monitored using yellow sticky traps.

Drosophila suzukii (Spotted-wing drosophila)

Monitoring by traps baited with food based attractants all year round. It is very important to observe fruit regularly as they begin to ripen. Special care must be taken close to harvest, for assessing the infestation level.


Taeniothrips meridionalis (Flower thrips) 
Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips major (Summer thrips)

These insects injure mostly nectarines. Damages can be serious on flowers but mainly on young fruits. Attacks close to harvest are difficult to predict (such as beating). 


Panonychus ulmi (European red mite)
Tetranychus urticae (Two-spotted spider mite)

Visual monitoring on mobile forms and eggs.


Myzus persicae

Monitoring shoots attacked by active aphid colonies and honeydew production to determine timing of control. Check for the presence of mummies and other natural enemies.

Halyomorpha halys (Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB))

Early detection by using traps such as dark green pyramid traps or transparent sticky panel traps. Some lures are also available, but because the lure available is an aggregative pheromone, it is useful to place the pheromone traps outside the orchard. 

Predators and parasitoids

Monitoring by suitable methods (e.g. visual assessment, beating) to assess beneficial-pest ratio.

Cookie Consent with Real Cookie Banner